Hope2SleepGuide

Sleep Apnoea Forum Bringing Help + Support to the Patient

A to Zzz's of Sleep Definitions and Abbreviations

A to Zzz of SLEEP DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS


APNOEA:  Without Breath (also spelt Apnea in some countries).  Therefore, Sleep Apnoea means pauses in breathing whilst sleeping.


APNOEA/HYPOPNOEA INDEX (AHI):  The number of apnoea/hypopnoea incidents per hour.


APNOEA INDEX (AI):  The number of apnoea events per hour.


AROUSAL:  Going from sleep to wakefulness, or from a deeper to lighter stage of sleep.


APAP:  Automatic Positive Airway Pressure Machine (Automatic CPAP), which automatically adjusts the level of pressure needed on a breath-by-breath basis.   Useful for people on high pressures or who find it difficult to tolerate the pressure needed.


BI-PAP:  Bi-level Pressure Machine with 2 pressures – a lower pressure for exhalation and a higher pressure for inhalation.  (Useful for people who find it difficult to exhale against the pressure). 


BRUXISM:  Teeth grinding during sleep.


CENTRAL SLEEP APNOEA (CSA):  Absence of breath caused by irregularity in the brain’s control of breathing. 


CPAP:  Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Machine with one fixed pressure giving constant same-pressure therapy to keep the airways open.


EPAP:  Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure prescribed for the expiratory (breathing out) phase of a person on Bi-level CPAP therapy.


FLOW LIMITATION:  Partial closure of the upper airway impeding the flow of air into the lungs.


GERD (GASTROESPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE):  Flow of stomach acid upwards into the esophagus that can cause arousals and disrupt sleep. 


HST:  Home sleep study

 

HYPERSOMNIA:  Excessive daytime sleepiness.


HYPNOTICS:  Sleep-inducing medication.


HYPOPNOEA:  Shallow breathing, often accompanied by oxygen desaturation.


HYPOVENTILATION:  Decreased rate of breathing.


INSOMNIA:  Difficulty in falling and/or staying asleep.


INSPIRATORY POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE (IPAP):  Pressure prescribed for the inspiratory phase of a person on Bi-level CPAP therapy.


LASER ASSISTED UVULOPALATOPLASTY (LAUP):   Operation using a laser to make some small cuts in your soft palate to make it firmer and hopefully reduce snoring. 


MICROSLEEP:  Sleep episode lasting from a fraction of a second up to 30 seconds – normally as a result of sleep deprivation. 


MIXED SLEEP APNOEA: A combination of Central and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea.


NARCOLEPSY:  A sleep disorder that causes excessive sleepiness and frequent daytime sleep attacks. 


NOCTURIA: Excessive, often frequent, urination during the night.


OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA (OSA):  Sleep disorder where the sufferer stops breathing for at least 10 seconds, caused by an obstruction, such as the uvula or tongue blocking the windpipe, soft palate dropping etc.

 

OBSTRUCTIVE HYPOPNOEA:  An episode of overly shallow breathing or an abnormally low respiratory rate, which is different from an apnoea as there does remain some flow of air.   It is also caused by the same obstructions as OSA.

 

OXYGEN SATURATION:  Oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of oxygen found in the  blood.  Normal values range between 90-100%.



 

PAP:  CPAP, APAP, BiPAP etc.

 

PERIODIC LIMB MOVEMENT DISORDER (PMLD):  A sleep disorder where the sufferer involuntarily moves their limbs during sleep.

 

PSG:   Polysomnography or the Sleep Study

 

PULSE OXIMETER:  Medical device which monitors the oxygen saturation and heart rate of the wearer.  

 

RAINOUT:  Term used to describe a build-up of condensation/water in the CPAP hose tube from the humidification.  (A hose cover normally fixes this!).


RESPIRATORY DISTURBANCE INDEX (RDI):  Includes all respiratory events per hour. 


REM SLEEP (RAPID EYE MOVEMENT SLEEP):  The sleep stage where there is rapid eye movement (hence it’s name), loss of body movement, more brain activity and where dreaming occurs.


RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME (RLS): A sleep disorder characterized by a tingling, aching, crawling and itching of the limbs which can last for hours and usually gets worse at night, preventing the sufferer from getting the sleep they need. There is an almost irresistible urge to move the legs to ease the discomfort. 

 

RPSGT:  Registered Polysomnography Technologist or Sleep Tech for short.


SEPTOPLASTY:  Surgery to straighten the nasal septum (dividing the nasal passage).  A deviated septum can cause nasal blockage and sinus problems.


SLEEP APNOEA:  Cessation of breathing for 10 or more seconds during sleep, and takes the form of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea, Central Sleep Apnoea or Mixed Sleep Apnoea.


SLEEP DEBT:   A build-up (often accumulated over many years) of sleep deprivation, and the body requires this to be paid back.  In the case of Sleep Apnoea, this debt does not usually start to get paid back until the sufferer is on successful treatment.


SLEEP PARALYSIS:  An experience of waking and not being able to move at all for (usually) a short period of time.  Whilst this is not harmful, it can be very distressing.


TONSILLECTOMY:  Surgical removal of the tonsils which can alleviate the symptoms of obstructive Sleep Apnoea, or in the case of children, removal can cure Sleep Apnoea until they are adults, in most cases.


TRACHEOTOMY: Surgical procedure to create an opening in the trachea (windpipe) so that one can breathe.  At present this is the only known complete cure for Sleep Apnoea.


UPPER AIRWAY RESISTANCE SYNDROME (UARS):  A sleep disorder caused by blockages to breathing from the upper airways – most often caused by nasal congestion.  It is closely related to Sleep Apnoea, and certainly mimics most of the symptoms.  Unlike Sleep Apnoea, 50% of the sufferers are female. 


UVULOPALATOPHARYNGOPLASTY (UPPP):  Surgical procedure to remove the uvula, pharyngeal arches and often partial removal of the soft to help improve the symptoms of Sleep Apnoea.


Views: 420

Add a Comment

You need to be a member of Hope2SleepGuide to add comments!

Join Hope2SleepGuide

Sleep Apnoea Forum

New to the Sleep Apnoea Forum? 

1. Stop by our Sleep Apnoea Welcome Center to introduce yourself to the SleepGuide community.
2. Start a New Topic of Conversation.
3. Post your photos - of yourself, your old CPAP machine, your new CPAP machine, your pet, something about you!

Interested in advertising, have a problem or need to contact us? Click the Report an Issue page.

 

Latest Activity

John Wilkinson replied to John Wilkinson's discussion I've 'hit a wall' can any body help me?
"Thanks for your advice. I really appreciate your help. I wasn't aware that there different types of apnoeas. I will be seeing the sleep nurse next week. I will keep you informed. John "
Thursday
John Wilkinson replied to John Wilkinson's discussion I've 'hit a wall' can any body help me?
"Thanks for that Kath. I am due to see the sleep clinic next week. Hopefully they will re-adjust the pressure. I will keep you informed. John"
Thursday
Edam replied to Edam's discussion Double inhaling
"I have read that APAP machines are not suitable for people with Asthma and give the same problems that I have been having. I am now having to use twice the dose of steriods just to keep the APAP happy If I can ever get in touch with my hospital I…"
Thursday
Kath Hope replied to Chris Vesey's discussion Medistron batteries
"Thanks Chris and we certainly are doing our homework Sleep2Snore.  Our charity work hard to get the right products at the right price for our fellow sufferers, and we have lots of loyal customers who purchase from us both to support the charity…"
Thursday
Kath Hope replied to John Wilkinson's discussion I've 'hit a wall' can any body help me?
"Sorry to hear after a good start you've taken a step backwards, and it could well be due to the reduction in pressure.  We don't recommend adjusting pressures but you're right to contact your hospital who will probably re-adjust…"
Thursday
Sleep2snore replied to John Wilkinson's discussion I've 'hit a wall' can any body help me?
"They have reduced it to far.  The max was 16, they should have left the machine at 18 if it is an APAP (automatic pressure) if it is a CPAP you have now same applies.  However, it might not be quite that straight forward as that as the…"
Wednesday
John Wilkinson posted a discussion

I've 'hit a wall' can any body help me?

I was diagnosed with severe OSA in November and I have been using a Philips Respironics CPAP machine and full face mask from early December up to now (about 5 months). My HPI's went down from 44 to about  14 in about 10 weeks and I was feeling much…See More
Wednesday
Sleep2snore replied to Chris Vesey's discussion Medistron batteries
"They are very costly things to have sitting around to go wrong or if you forget to charge them by their date. You could try to see if they will do it on a sale or return basis, them you could keep one or two.  However, I think most are ordering…"
Tuesday
Chris Vesey replied to Chris Vesey's discussion Medistron batteries
"Hi, I see from medistrom website they are looking for dealers, is it worth considering Kath"
Tuesday
Sleep2snore replied to Chris Vesey's discussion Medistron batteries
"I wish the ResMed was 12Vdc, it would make life a lot easier. I wonder why they need 24Vdc anyway? My APAP is not mine to and see why it has to be 24Vdc! I don't think the clinic might be to impressed if I opened it for a look. "
May 14
Sleep2snore replied to Edam's discussion Double inhaling
"I would like to see how the hospital is going to explain that your Apnoea is getting worse with an AHU of 0. That is almost incompetent. It might also be that it is not straight forward Sleep Apnoea you have and might benefit from an advanced…"
May 14
Chris Vesey replied to Chris Vesey's discussion Medistron batteries
"hi, just looked on internet, it seems that medistrom may not have a dealer in the uk but a company called sleep tight advertise the pilot 24 for £345, don't know about the co pilot. The very expensive one on amazon comes from Israel, good…"
May 13
Chris Vesey replied to Chris Vesey's discussion Medistron batteries
"hi, at the time amazon were selling the pilot for £285 and the co pilot for £137, gone up a lot since then chris"
May 13
Edam replied to Edam's discussion Double inhaling
"I have read that if you have Asthma a CPAP is better than a APAP  When the APAP increases the pressure it makes the asthma worse and then the APAP increases the pressure again which makes the asthma even worse ..... This is exactly whats…"
May 13
Kath Hope replied to Chris Vesey's discussion Medistron batteries
"Chris why did you purchase Medistrom as opposed to the Resmed battery?  Don't get me wrong as I've heard great things about the Medistrom and recommended it myself to people, but looking at the prices it seems just as or even more…"
May 13
Chris Vesey posted a discussion

Medistron batteries

Hi,I bought a pilot and co pilot set up a few months ago and have recently been trying them out. I have found by trial and error the following,First switch off all humidifiers etc.Switch to airplane mode, this reduces the amount of battery power…See More
May 13
Emma Bennett is now a member of Hope2SleepGuide
May 13
Chris Vesey replied to Helen Page's discussion Another newbie with a gazillion questions
"Hi, I informed the dvla by post using the relevant form they sent me. When the form arrived i was warned that i needed to return it within 14 days! As it takes a week for any dvla letter to arrive i was not amused. Even though i had started…"
May 12
Edam replied to Edam's discussion Double inhaling
"You are right about needing the extra humidity. Its been very dry lately , I measured it at 39%RH,  so I will start to us the "Warm Up" on the H5i to get the humidity up straight away On my last visit to the hospital I was told that…"
May 11
Sleep2snore replied to Edam's discussion Double inhaling
"It is a machine and if you have COPD and suffer from hay fever and asthma it will cause problems that you will have to find a work around for.  Looks like you have already found one that helps. It is very much a case of experiment and see. "
May 11

© 2018   Created by The SleepGuide Crew.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service